Cooperative ADAS and driving, bio-inspired and optimal solutions
Mobility is a topic of great interest in research and engineering since critical aspects such as safety, traffic efficiency, and environmental sustainability still represent wide open challenges for researchers and engineers. In this thesis, at first, we address the cooperative driving safety problem both from a centralized and decentralized perspective. Then we address the problem of optimal energy management of hybrid vehicles to improve environmental sustainability, and finally, we develop an intersection management systems for Connected Autonomous Vehicle to maximize the traffic efficiency at an intersection. To address the first two topics, we define a common framework. Both the cooperative safety and the energy management for Hybrid Electric Vehicle requires to model the driver behavior. In the first case, we are interested in evaluating the safety of the driver’s intentions, while in the second case, we are interested in predicting the future velocity profile to optimize energy management in a fixed time horizon.
The framework is the Co-Driver, which is, in short, a bio-inspired agent able both to model and to imitate a human driver. It is based on a layered control structure based on the generation of atomic human-like longitudinal maneuvers that compete with each other like affordances. To address driving safety, the Co-Driver behaves like a safe driver, and its behavior is compared to the actual driver to understand if he/she is acting safely and providing warnings if not. In the energy management problem, the Co-Driver aims at imitating the driver to predict the future velocity. The Co-Driver generates a set of possible maneuvers and selects one of them, imitating the action selection process of the driver. At first, we address the problem of safety by developing and investigating a framework for Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS) built on the Co-Driver. We developed and investigated this framework in an innovative context of new intelligent road infrastructure, where vehicles and roads communicate.
The infrastructure that allows the roads to interact with vehicles and the environment is the topic of a research project called SAFESTRIP. This project is about deploying innovative sensors and communication devices on the road that communicate with all vehicles. Including vehicles that are equipped with Vehicle-To-Everything (V2X) technology and vehicles that are not, using an interface (HMI) on smart-phones. Co-Driver-based ADAS systems exploit connections between vehicles and (smart) roads provided by SAFESTRIP to cover several safety-critical use cases: pedestrian protection, wrong-way vehicles on-ramps, work-zones on roads and intersections. The ADAS provide personalized warning messages that account for the adaptive driver behavior to maximize the acceptance of the system.
The ability of the framework to predict human drivers’ intention is exploited in a second application to improve environmental sustainability. We employ it to feed with the estimated speed profile a novel online Model Predictive Control (MPC) approach for Hybrid Electric Vehicles, introducing a state-of-the-art electrochemical model of the battery. Such control aims at preserving battery life and fuel consumption through equivalent costs. We validated the approach with actual driving data used to simulate vehicles and the power-train dynamics. At last, we address the traffic efficiency problem in the context of autonomous vehicles crossing an intersection.
We propose an intersection management system for Connected Autonomous Vehicles based on a bi-level optimization framework. The motion planning of the vehicle is provided by a simplified optimal control problem, while we formulate the intersection management problem (in terms of order and timing) as a Mixed Integer Non-Linear Programming. The latter approximates a linear problem with a powerful piecewise linearization technique. Therefore, thanks to this technique, we can bound the error and employ commercial solvers to solve the problem (fast enough). Finally, this framework is validated in simulation and compared with the "Fist-Arrived First-Served" approach to show the impact of the proposed algorithm.