The "dottorato di ricerca" (doctorate of research) is the highest Italian academic degree, which is equivalent to the Ph.D. The "dottorato" is a relatively recent addition to the Italian academic landscape, having been instituted in 1999 with the Ministerial Decree of April 30.
Since 2003, the University of Trento has created several Doctoral Schools in the (social) sciences and humanities. These schools are governed by the "University Regulations for Doctoral Schools", which can be donwloaded from the box below.
International Best Practices - Research Integrity